Hydro-fracking is a well development process that has been used frequently in the well water industry since the 1990s
Hydro-frackin involves using direct displacement specialized high pressure pumps to inject water under high pressure into a bedrock formation in the well. Since liquids can't be compressed, the hydraulic pressures exert force against the borehole and any fractures along the borehole. Hydro-fracking is supposed to flush and remove any fine particles and rock fragments from existing bedrock fractures and/or increase the size and extent of existing fractures; resulting in more flow of water and a larger network of water bearing fractures supplying water to the well.
The Hydro-fracking process involves the installation of one or more inflatable or manual packers that are placed in the well bore at least 50 feet below the well casing that is set in by a crane truck. The packer is set at least 60 feet below the ground surface to ensure the process does not ''break'' the seal or allow surface water contaminants to enter the well. The packer is inflated or locked into position and clean potable water is pumped through the packer under pressure. Most applications require between 500 and 3,500 pounds per square inch pressure and a flow rate of 10 to 50 GPM. If successful, pressure will steadily rise to a maximum level as the rock formation resists flow, then pressure will suddenly drop off and stabilize at a lower level. The drop in pressure indicates that the formation has broken and is accepting water and the resistance to flow is diminished. When utilizing one packer, the packer is set near the top of the well but at a safe distance below the drive shoe seal. After the initial pressurization sequence, the packer is released and lowered further into the hole , and the process is repeated how many times is necessary . Commonly 2-3 pressure sequences are preformed. Water is then pumped into the formation for 5 to 30 minutes. Generally, 1000 to 2,000 gallons of water or more are pumped into the bedrock formation during multiple settings of the packer in there borehole.
The Hydro-fracking process equipment include a crane truck, high pressure water pump(s), and water truck for the potable water used in the hydro-fracking process.